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Schlesinger Library Radcliffe College

Purchased with funds

contributed by the

Radcliffe Culinary Friends

f

THE

DIXIE COOK-BOOK

CABBPCLI.Y COMPILED

FROM THE TREASURED FAMILY COLLECTIONS OF MANY GEN- ERATIONS OF NOTED HOCSEKEEPERS: LARGELY SUPPLE- MENTED BY TF-'^TED RECIPES OF THE MORE MODERN SOUTHERN I LSHES, CONTRIBUTED BY WELL-KNOWN LADIES OF THE SOUTH.

t

*• The best is none too good,*'

IBYISBS XDITZOir.

ATLANTA, UA.:

I* A. CLARKSON & COMPANY.

1885

I

(

PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.

\ In attemptLag to plan a thoroughly practical work on Hoiuekeeplng and kindred

f ^ BubjectB that would meet the real needs of the Southern matrons of to-day, the well*

known "Practical Housekeeping" (which in its wide dissemination East and Wesl, North and South, has reached a sale of 190,000 copies) came under our notice. Its contributions from all States of the Union hare made it cosmopolitan In character, and, being un- doubtedly the best cook-book for general use In print, it seemed a fitting basis for our " Dixie Cook-Book ; " therefore, with the consent of its Publishers, we have made it this^ combining with the *' cream " of that excellent manual a large collection of additional recipe»-<!hoice treasures from the gamers of many a Boutiiem household, handed down from generation to generation, besides many other recipes, contributed by the V ladies of the South, for the more modem Southern dishes. Earnestly trusting the

Yolume will meet the demand it is intended to supply of a reliable and complete manual for the housekeeper, we submit it to the public.

-. . ■]

Oopyzlglit, 1883, by A. O. WnooXi

i^^

To

flothn» Htm, aad DanglUxs of tlw 'funqy tott,"

VHD HAYE to BRATELT FACED THE PtfFlOUM'AEB WHICH NEW SOCIAL CONDXIIOIIE HAVE IMP08BD ON THEH AS MmTBBMBB OF 80UTHEBN HOXE^ AND ON WHOSE COVEAGE AND FXDELITT IN QOOD OE nX FOBTUNE THE FUTUEE OF IHBIB BELOVED LAND KT78T DEPEND^

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED.

TABLE OF CJONTENTa

xfEBAD-MAKINO 7-68

Cakb-makino 6^101

Creams and Cubtabds 102-112

Confectionery 113-118

Canning Fruits. 119-127

Catsups and Sauces. 128-186

Drinks 137-144

BOGA 14&150

Fish 151-158

Fruits 159-166

Game 167-178

Ices and Igb-greax 174-180

Jellies and Jams 181-189

Meats 190-209

Pastry ■•■•■••■••• 210-224

Puddings and Sauces .1 I I I I ! .* 225-242

Preserves 248-258

Pickles 254-27a

Poultry 271-286

Baladh 287-294

gHELL-nSH 295-308

Soups . . . . 804-819

Vegetables •••••••. 820-345

Ornamental Icing, Illustrated 846-378

Bills op Fare for every day in tbb TBAB 87^-406

Fragments ••• 406-m6

Blanks for additional Recipes ••••• 416^17

CoqK's Time-Table 417

Table of Weights and Measures .••••••••• 418

When Food is in Season ..•••••••••• 419^20

Comparative Value op Fuel ••••••••••• 421

housekrepino ••••• •422-444

Dining-room ••••• 415.458

Kitchen ••••• 459 476

Kitchen Luxuries, Illustrated 477-491

Household Conveniences, iLLUsntATH) . ..•••••• 492-498

Management op Help ••.. 499-501

Marketing ..'.....'.••••.•••. 502-^10

Carving, Illustrated 511-512

ilow to Cut and Curb Meats, Illdrbath) 5l3-.'ii8

Hints on BinrER-MAKiNQ . . 5l9-5i?0

Laundry 521-5:i5

Cellar and Ice-house .•••••.. 536-MO

Something a^out Babies •••. 54l-;)55

Hints for the Well •••••••. f>56-5r»i

Hiv^ for the Sick-room •••.•. 5()2->')73

Thb Arts of the Toilet ••• 5T4-:m

accidents and Sudden Sicxkeh 5R2-588

PiX)RAL '. 689-591

Chkmiktry of Food ••••••. 592-597

Drbbs-making at Home •••••••• 508-(>19

Coix)RiNO AND Bleaching ••••••. 620-6*^8

Medical ••••••*... 629-660

Miscellaneous •••••••••. 60i-f>72

Alphabetical Index. .••••••• e7:i-ii87

PEEFAOE.

''In a multitude of counsel'' is said to be wisdom. If this be true of any thing, it certainly is of cookery. The present candi- date for favor has not been made up with the aid of the paste-pot and scissors, neither has it been gathered at random from doubt- ful sources, but has been culled, without stint of labor, time or expense, from the treasure-troves of hundreds of the grand old housekeepers of our land who have practically tested what is now given to others. A recipe is only valuable firom being tried and approved. Blunders iii cookery cost money, and it is a self-evident fact that a few spoiled dishes represent the price of a good cook- book,— ^to say nothing of the vexation and chagrin, inevitable to the conscientious housekeeper, resulting from any culmary failure.

The "cook-books" and "receipt-books" of the past few years have numbered legion; "of making them there has seemed no end ;" yet too often their study and practice have proven **a wea- riness to the flesh," for while some of their authors were good book-makers, they were poor bread-makers; others, though per- fectly &imiliar with the subjects treated of, yet &iled to clearly and fully describe the processes in detail. A few lines of recipes, unattended by any practical instructions or suggestions, may prove of little utility to the mass of cooks, since to give a recipe that can be intelligibly understood by all b by no means an easy task.

The lack of ordinary dishes, or those suited to the life of the great middle daas, has been another realized want. Fortunately it is becoming fashionable to economize, and housekeepers are really finding a pleasure and satisfaction in searching out and seek« ing to stop the numberless household leaks, and to exercise the thousand little economies which thoughtful and careful women un- derstand so well and practice so gracefully.

Some one has assorted that a well-to-do French iamily will live on what an American household in the same condition of life throws away. Possibly this may not be a very great exaggeration, and

▼i PREFACE,

we may learn the fine art of spending money wisely, perhaps, as well as that of dress, from our neighbors across the water. It is a satis&ction to those housekeepers whose purses are not over- plethoric to realize that good cooking is not necessarily the most costly; and surely she is an artist in culinary skill who can com- pound a good and palatable dish from a limited larder.

While the present volume contains recipes suited to all grades and styles of living, its one aim has been to pack between its covers the largest possible amount of practical information of real value to all ; and it is believed the recipes will be found to be not only practical, but really excellent, yet not tending to extravagance.

The instructions preceding each department have been carefully given, and will be foimd entirely trustworthy; the recipes are all well indorsed.

The suggestive chapters in the latter parf of the book cover a wide range of household subjects, and will prove of equal interest with the cookery department to the earnest housekeeper who readily seizes upon all timely hints and suggestions that may tend to simplify and systematize the labor of housekeeping and home-making or in any way help to lessen the friction of the domestic machinery.

There has been no effort at display, the only purpose being to express ideas as clearly and concisely as possible, and to make a simple and practical work to meet the needs of earnest housekeep- ers of all classes.

The arrangement of subjects treated has been made on the sim- ple order of the alphabet so far as practicable, and for more ready reference a full alphabetical index has been added a matter that will be appreciated by those whose time is of value.

It is a woman's book, compiled and sold by women, and in the interest of women, and will, it is believed, be fully appreciated by all earnest women.

Possibly, in the effort to avoid the mistakes of otners, greater errors may have been committed ; but the book is submitted just as it is to the generous judgment and intelligent consideration of Southern housekeepers, with the hope that it may in some degree lessen their perplexities and aid them in their successful and happy reign in "Woman's Kingdom" the Home.

/

BREAD-MAKING.

The old saying, '* bread b the staff of life/' has sound reason in it Flour made from wheat, and meal from oats and Indian corn, are rich in the waste-repairing elements, starch and albumen, and head the list of articles of food for man. Good bread makes the homeliest meal acceptable, and the coarsest fare appetizing, while the most luxurious table is not even tolerable without it. Light, crisp rolls for breakfast, spongy, sweet bread for dinner, and flaky biscuit for supper, cover a multitude of culinary sins ; and there is no one thing on which the health and comfoi*t of a family so much depends as the quality of its home-made loaves.

Opinions as to what constitutes good bread differ, perhaps, as much as t&sles and opinions concerning any thing else, but all will agree that bread, to be go#i, ought to be light, sweet that is, free from any perceptible acid or yeasty taste— flaky, granular or not liable to become a doughy mass, and as white as the grade of flour used will allow. If members of the family have delicate digestive powers, they will not use new bread, and therefore must have such as will keep with little change of texture and none of quality or taste, for several days. To obtain these qualities in bread, use the be^t flour, as in families where no bread is wasted, the best is cheap est. The good old Genesee Valley white winter wheat, of Western New York, makes a flour unsurpassed in quality. The Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and Missouri white winter wheat grades are much the same, but the Minnesota hard spring wheat '^ new process** flour is the equal of the best, and is so much superior in strength that one-eighth less is used in all recipes for bread and ca,ke. The common or ** straight" brands are used by the great majority of families, and from all of them good, uniform and palatable bread may be made.

(7>

8 BREAD-MAKING.

HouBekeepers seldom select flour by examination. Tliey usually take some tried brand, or select on the recommendation of their fur- nisher. No rule can be given by which an inexperienced person can determine the grade* of flour with accuracy, but a few hints will enable any one to know what not to buy. Good flour adheres to the hand, and, when pressed, shows the imprint of the lines of the skin. Its tint is cream white. Never buy that which has a blue- white tinge. Poor flour is not adhesive, may be blown about easily, and sometimes has a dingy look, as though mixed with ashes.

Flour should be bought in quantities corresponding to the num- ber in the family, that it may not become damaged by long keeping. In a family of five, a barrel, or even a half-barrel sack of flour, excellent when first bought, will become much deteriorated before being used up. A small family should always buy in twenty-five pound, or at largest, fifty pound sacks. Flour should be kept dry, cool and entirely l)eyond the reach of marauders, big or little, especially the latter, for the infinitesimal meal moth is &r more to be dreaded than rats or mice. Therefore every receptacle of flour should be thoroughly and frequently cleansed, to guard against ani- mal as well as vegetable parasites. A single speck of mold, coming from old or damp flour in an obscure cft-ner of the flour-box, will leaven the whole as rapidly and strongly as ten times its weight in yeast. In no event should flour be used without being sifted.

Bread-making seems a simple process enough, but it requires a delicate care and watcafulness, and a thorough knowledge of all the contingencies of tl e process, dependent on the different qualities of flour, and the varying kinds and conditions of yeast, and the change of seasons ; the process which raises bread successfully in winter making it sour in summer. There are many little things in bread-making which require accurate observation, and, while valu- able recipes and well-defined methods in detail are. in valuable aids, nothing but experience will secure the name merited by so few, though earnestly coveted by every practical, sensible housekeeper "an excellent bread-maker." Three things are indispensable to success: good flour, good yeast, and watchful care. Never use flour withodt sifting ; and a large tin or wooden pail with a tight- fitting cover, kept full of sifted flour, will be found a great conven-

BREAD-MAKING. 9

fence. All kinds of flour and meal, except buckwheat and Graham

and Graham, too, when coarse ^need sifting, and all, like wheat

flour, should be bought in small quantities, as they become damp

and musty by long standing.

The Yeast.

After the flour, the yeast or leaven is the next essential element

in bread. For regular fare most, especially women, prefer "yeast

bread," but men who can not forget ** how their mother used to

cook," have a liking for "salt-rising" bread, and the latter deserves

the acquaintance of the housekeeper and a :&equent welcome on

the family table. The dry hop yeast, such as Twin Bros. , Stratton's,

National, Eagle, Gillett's, and many others, are all good, if iresh,

and always available, for they are found in every grocery. Many

housekeepers use baker's yeast, and buy for a penny or two what

will serve each baking of bread. Potato yeast has two advantages

over other kinds ; bread made from it keeps moist longer, and there

is no danger that an excess of yeast will injure the flavor of the

bread.

The Sponge.

This is made from warm water or milk, yeast and flour (some add mashed potatoes) mixed tqpether in the proportion of one pint wet- ting (water or milk) to two pints of sifted flour. If milk is used it should be new, and must be first scalded, and then cooled to blood neat. The scaiaing lenas lo prevent souring, xii uvixig waier onng it to blood heat. If the ** wetting" is too hot, the bread will be coarse. When water is used a tablespoon* of lard or butter makes the bread more tender. Bread made from milk is, of course, more tender and nutritious, but it has not the sweet taste of the wheat, and will not keep as long as that made from water. When mixed with milk it requires less flour and less kneading. In summer, care must be taken not to set sponge too early, at least not before eight or nine o'clock in the evening. (Sponge mixed with bran water, warm in whiter and cold in summer, makes sweeter bread. Boil bran in the proportion of one pint to a quart of water and strain.) In very hot weather, sponge may be made with cold water. Is winter, mix the batter with water or milk, at blood warmth, testing

* Whenever, in this book, the words cupflil, coffbe-cupftil, ten-cupfUl, table-epoonftil, ete« r, the termination ** Ail " la dropped, for the sake of brevity.

10 BREAD-MAKINO,

it with the finger, and making it as warm as can be borne ; stir in the flour, which will cool It sufficiently for the yeast ; cover closely and place in a warm and even temperature. A good plan is to fold a clean blanket several times, and cover with it, providing the sponge is set in a very large crock or jar, so that there is no danger of its running over. As a general rule, one small tea-cup of yeast and three pints of "wetting" will make sponge enough for four ordinary loaves. In all sponges add the yeast last, making sure that the sponge is not hot enough to scald it; when placed to rise, always cover closely. In cold weather the temperature runs down very quickly, in many kitchens, after the fire is out, and the bread should be set earlier in the evening, and in a warmer place; a temperature of eighty or ninety degrees is right. When it rises well for the first two hours, it will go on rising unless the temperature falls below the freezing point. It is an improvement to beat the sponge thoroughly, like batter for a cake, for fifteen minutes. Never set sponge in tin, but always in stoneware, because a more steady and uniform heat can be maintained in a stone jar than in tin.

TO MAKE GOOD BREAD,

Always be

" Up in Uie morning early, just atThe peep of day,"

in summer time, to prevent the sponge becoming sour by too long standing, and in winter to be getting materials warmed and in readi- ness for use. A large, seamless tin dish-pan with handles and a tight-fitting cover, kept for this purpose alone, is better than a wooden bowl for bread. It should be thoroughly washed and scalded every time it is used. Measure and siit the flour. It is convenient to keep two quart cups, one for dry and the other for liquid measuring. In winter always warm the flour (by placing it in a pan in a vHirm oven for a few minutes or by setting it over night where it will be kept at the same temperature as the sponge) and also the sponge. Put the flour in a bread pan , make a large well in the cen- ter, into which pour the sponge, adding two level tea-spoons of salt (this is the quantity for four loaves of bread) ; mix well, being careful not to get the dough too stiff; turn out on the bread-board, rub the pan clean, and add the "rubbings" to the bread. Knead for from forty-five minutes to one hour, or until the dough ceases to stick to

BREAD-MAKINQ, 11

either the board or hands. Do not stop kneading until done. Any pause in the process injures the bread. The process of kneading is very important. Use just as little flour in kneading as will prevent sticking, and practice will enable one to make a little flour go a great way. Some good bread-makers knead with the palm of the hands until the dough is a flat cake, then fold once, repeating this operation until the dough is perfectly smooth and elastic ; others zloae the hands} and press hard and quickly into the dough with the fists, dipping them into the flour when the dough sticks; or, after kneading, chop with the chopping knife and then knead again; others still knead with a potato-masher, thinking it a great saving of strength. Another method, used by good bread-makers, is to raise the whole mass and drop or dash it with considerable force upon the mixing-board or table for several minutes. No exact directions can be given, but experience and practice will prove the best guides. After the bread is thoroughly kneaded, form into a round mass or large loaf, sprinkle the bread-pan well with flour, and, having placed the loaf in it, sprinkle flour lightly on the top (some grease the top with salted lard or butter instead of sprinkling with flour) ; cover closely, and set to rise in a warm temperature ; let it rise to twice its original size this time, say firom one to two hours, difi*ering in time with the season of the year. Then knead down in the pan, cut into equal parts, place one at a time on the board, mold each into a smootri, oblong loaf, not too large, ana put one arter anotner into a well-greased baking-pan ; grease the tops of the loaves with salted lard or butter, and set to rise. Or the loaves may be made by buttering the hands, and taking enough from the mass to form a loaf, molding it into shape in the hands, without using flour. This insures a nice, brown, tender crust Loaves made in the French style, long and narrow, are about half crust, and more easily di- gested, the action of heat antici})atiug part of the digestive process. In molding, do not leave any lumps or loose flour adhering to the outside, but mold until the loaves are perfectly Smooth. No par- ticular directions can be given in regard to the time bread should stand after it is molded and placed in the pans, because here is uie point where observation and discretion are so indispensable. In hot weather, when the yeast is very good and the bread very light, it

12 BREAD-MAKING.

must not stand over fifteen minutes before placing to bake. If it is cold weather, and the yeast is less active, or the bread not perfectly raised, it may sometimes stand an hour in the pans without injury. When it is risen so as to seam or crack, it is ready for the oven ; if it stands after this it becomes sour, and even if it does not sour it loses its freshness and sweetness, and the bread becomes dry sooner after baking. Bread should undergo but two fermentations; the saccharine or sweet fermentation, and the vinous, when it smells something like foaming beer. The housewife who would have good, sweet bread, must never let it pass this change, because the third or acetous fermentation then takes place. This last can be remedied by adding soda m the proportion of one tea-spoon to each quart of wetting ; or, which is the same thing, a tea-spoon to four quarts of flour; but the bread will be much less nutritious and healthful, and some of the best elements of the flour will be lost. Always add salt to all bread, biscuit, griddle-cakes, etc., but never salt sponge. A small quantity of white sugar is an improvement to all bread dough. Bread should always be mixed as soft as it can he handled^ but in using the "new process*' flour, made from spring wheat, the dough requires to be much harder than is necessary when using that made from winter wheat

To Bake Bread.

Here is the important point, for the bread may be perfect thus far and then be spoiled in baking. No definite rules can be i^ven that apply equally well to every stove and range ; but one general rule must be observed, which is, to have a steady, moderate heat, such as is more minutely described in the directions for baking large cakes. The oven must be just hot enough ; if too hot, a firm crust is formed before the bread has expanded enough, and it will be heavy. To test the heat, place a teaspoon of flour on an old piece of crockery (to secure an even heat), and set in middle of the oven ; if it browns in one minute the heat is right. An oven in which the bare hand and arm can not be held longer than to count twenty moderately, is hot enough. The attention of stove-makers seems aever to have been directed to the &ct that there is no accurate means of testing the heat of ovens, but it is to be hoped that in the

BREAD-MAKINO. 13

near ftiture some simple device may be fbuDd which will render mmeoessaiy such inaccurate and untrustworthy tests as must now be used, and thus reduce baking to a science. To test whether the bread is done, break the loaves apart and press gently with the finger ; if elastic it is done, but if clammy, not done, and must be returned to the oven ; or, if the loaves are single, test with a straw plucked from a broom. Break off the branches and thrust the larger end into the loaf; if it is sticky when withdrawn, the bread is not done, but if free from dough it is ready to be removed fi'om the oven. The little projections on the straw, where the branches have been broken off, catch and bring out the dough, when not thoroughly baked.

The time required for baking is not less than three-quarters of an hour, and bread baked a full hour is more wholesome and is gen- erally considered more palatable. ''The little fairy that hovers over successful bread-making is heat, not too little nor too much, but uniform."

When removed from the oven, take the loaves out of the pan, grease the entire outer crust with melted butter, and tilt them on edge, so as to secure a free circulation of air. It is better not to cover bread while warm, unless with a Ught cloth to keep off flies. Thoroughly exposed to the air thR auvface cooh first, insuring a crisp crust and the retention of the moisture in the loaf. There are those, however, who follow successftilly the plan of wrapping the bread, as soon as it ia removed from the oveu. in a coarse towel or bread-cloth. Never put warm bread next to wood, as the part in contact will have a bad taste. Spread a cloth over the table before placing the bread on it

Good bread-makers differ widelv as to the number of times bread should rise, some insisting that the rgle of our good grandmothers, who only allowed it to rise once, insures the sweetest and most nutri- ttoos bread, and that in all subsequent fermentations, a decomposi- tion takes places that is damaging to the wholesome qualities of the "staff of life.'*

If by accident or neglect the bread is baked too hard, rub the baf over with butter, wet a towel and wrap it in it, and cover with another dry toweL In winter, bread dough may be kept sweet

14 BREAD-MAKUIQ.

wveral days by placing it where it will be eold without freezings or by putting it so deep into the flour barrel as to exclude it entirely firom the air. When wanted for use, make into bread, or, by add- ing the proper ingredients, into cake, rusk, biscuit, apple dump- lings, chicken pie, etc.

When the bread u eold, place in a stone jar or tin box, which must be thoroughly washed, scalded and dried each baking day. A still better receptacle for bread is a tin wash-boiler with a close cover, kept for this pur|)ose alone. When smaU, single loaf pans are used, the bread nmy be removed to cool, the pans washed and dried, and the loaves afterwards replaced each in its pan, and then set away in a box or boiler. The pan helps to keep the bread moist and palatable for several days.

The best pan for bread is made of Russia iron (which is but little more costly than tin and will last many times as long), about four by ten inches on the bottom, flaring to the top, and about four and one-half inches deep. The pan should be greased very lightly for bread.

Attention to neatness, important in all cookery, is doubly im- portant in bread-making. Be sure that the hair is neatiy combed and put up (which ought to be done before the dress is put on every morning), and that the hands, arms and finger-nails are scrupulously clean. A neat calico apron with bib, and sleeves of dress well-tucked up and lastened so that they wQl not come down, add much to the comfort of this the most important task of the kitchen queen.

There are three critical points in the process of bread-making : the condition of the yeast, which must never be used if sour ; the temperature where the bread b set to rise, which must not be so hot as to scald ; and the temperature of the oven, which must be uni- form, neither too hot nor too cold.

In cutting warm bread for the table, heat the knife, and, whether hot or cold, cut only as much as will be eaten. It is better to replenish the bread-plate once or even twice during a meal than to have slices left over to dry up and waste.

When using coal, put into the fire-box enough to finish the baking; adding more during the process is apt to render the oven-heat

BREAD-MAKING. 16

irregalar. When wood is used, make a good hoi fire, see that the stove has a good, free draft, and let it cool to an even, steady heat before putting the bread in the oven. The finest bread may be com- pletely spoiled in baking, and a freshly-made fire can not be easily l^ulated.

The patent iron shelves, made to be attached to the pipes of stoves and ranges, are very convenient places for placing bread to lise. They give the necessary warmth, and the height is conven- ient for watching.

The proportion of gluten in wheat, and consequently in flour, varies greatly in different varieties. Flour in which gluten is abundant will absorb much more liquid than that which contains a greater proportion of starch, and consequently is stronger ; that is, will make more bread to a given quantity. Gluten is a flesh-former, and starch a heat-giver, in the nutritive processes of the body. Flour containing a good proportion of gluten remains a compact mass when compressed in the hand, while starchy flour crumbles and lacks adhesive properties. Neither gluten or starch dissolve m cold water. The gluten is a grayish, tough, elastic substance. In yeast-bread, the yeast, in fermenting, combines with the sugar in the flour and the sugar which has been added to the flour, and car- bonic acid gas and alcohol are produced. The gas tries to escape, but is confined by the elastic, strong gluten which forms the walls of the cells in which it is held, its expansion changing the solid dough into a light, spongy mass. The kneading process distributes die yeast thoroughly through the bread, making the grain even. The water used in mixing the bread softens the gluten, and cements all the particles of flour together, ready for the action of the car- bonic acid gas. In baking, the loaf grows larger as the heat ex- pands the carbonic acid gas, and converts the water into steam and the alcohol into vapor, but it, meantime, loses one-sixth of its weight by the escape of these through the pores of the bread. Some of the starch changes into gum, the cells of the rest are broken by the heat, the gluten is softened and made tender, and the bread is in the condition most easily acted upon by the digestive fluids.

There is a great difierence of opinion as to the comparative mer- its of bread made from fine flour, and Graham, or whole wheat

16 BREAD-MAKII^Q.

flour. The latter is undoubtedly best for persons who lead seden- tary lives, as the coarse particles stimulate the digestive organs, causing the fluids to flow more freely ; while for those who follow active, out-of-door pursuits, the fine flour bread is probably best, as being more nutritious and economical, because wholly digested.

Th;ere is an old and true saying, that '* she who has baked a good batch of bread has done a good days work." Bread-making should stand at the head of domestic accomplishments, since the health and happiness of the family depends immeasurably upon good bread ; and there is certain to come a time in the experience of every true, thoughtful woman when she is glad and proud of her ability to make nice, sweet loaves, firee from soda, alum, and other injurious ingredients, or bitter regret that she neglected to learn, or was so unfortunate as not to have been taught, at least the first requisites of good bread-making.

Graham and Cobn Bread.

It is very desirable that every &mily should have a constant supply of bread made of unbolted flour, or rye and Indian com. Most persons find it palatable, and it promotes health. For these coarse breads, always add a little brown sugar or molasses, and the amount given in the recipes may be increased according to taste. They rise quicker and in a less warm atmosphere than without sweetening. A little lard or butter improves bread or ca&es made of Graham or Indian meal, rendering them light and tender. Graham rises rather more quickly than fine flour (as the whole wheat flour contains a larger proportion of gluten, and fermentation is more rapid), and should not be allowed to rise quite as light. The pans should be greased more thoroughly for Graham and com bread than for that made from fine flour. The fire should be steady and sufficient to complete the baking, and the oven hot when the bread is put in. A fresh blaze wiU bum the crust, while a steady fire will sweeten it. Graham bread bakes more slowly than fine- flour bread, and com bread requires mo(e time and a hotter oven than either. Use either yellow or white corn, ground coarse, for mush, and white, ground fine, for bread, etc. In cutting the latter while warm, heat the knife, and hold it perpendicularly. Rye is

BBEAD'MAKINQ. 17

said to absorb more moisture from the air than any other grain;

henoe, all bread from this meal needs a longer application of heat,

and keeps moister after being baked than that made from other

grain.

Sponge for Winter Use.

Peel and boil four or five medium-sized potatoes in two quarts of water (which wiU boil down to one quart by thet ime the potatoes are cooked) : when done, take out and press through a colander, or mash very fine in the crock in which the sponge is to be made; make a well in the center, into which put one cup of flour, and pour over tt the boiling water from the potatoes; stir thoroughly, and when cool add a pint of tepid water, flour enough to make a Mn batter, and a cup of yeast This sponge makes very moist bread.

Bread Sponge.

Six potatoes boiled and mashed while hot, two table-spoons of white sugar, two of butter, one quart tepid water; into this stir three cups flour; beat to a smooth batter, add six table-spoons yeast ; set over night, and, in the morning, knead in sufficient flour to make a stifi*, spongy dough ; knead vigorously for fifteen min- utes, set away to rise, and, when light, knead for ten minutes; mold out into moderate^ized loaves, and let rise until they are like deli- cate or light sponge-cake. Mrs. Oeorge H. Ruet

Bread Sponge and Bread.

Five pints warm water, five quarts sifted flour, one cofleC'Cup yeast ; mix in a two-gallon stone jar, cover closely, and set in a large tin pan, so that if the sponge rises over the top of the jar, the drippings may fall into the pan. Set to rise the evening before baking. In winter be careful to set in a warm place. In the morn* ing sift six quarts flour into a pail, pour the sponge into a bread« pen or bowl, add two table-spoons of salt, then the flour gradually ; mix and knead well, using up nearly all the flour. This first kneading is the most important, and should occupy at least twenty minutes. Make the bread in one large loaf, set away in a warm place, and cover with a cloth. It ought to rise in half an hour, when it should be kneaded thoroughly again for ten minutes. Then

Ai

18 BREAD-MAKINQ.

take enough dough for three good-sized loaves (a quart bowl of dough to each), give five minutes kneading to eiich loaf, and place to rise in a dripping-pan well greased with lard. The loaves will be light in five or ten minutes, and wUl bake in a properly heated oven in half an hour. Make a well in the center of the remaining dough, and into it put a half tea-cup of white sugar, one tea-cup of lard, and two eggs, which mix thoroughly with the dough, knead into one large loaf, set in a warm place about fifteen minutes to rise, and, when light, knead five minutes and let rise again for about ten minutes, when it should be light. Take out of pan, and knead on bread-board, roll about an inch in thickness, cut out with a biscuit* cutter, and place in dripping-pan ; let rise five minutes and bake twenty minutes. In winter more time must be allowed for rising. This makes three loaves and ninety biscuit.

Bread with Buttermilk.

The evening before baking, bring to the boiling point two quarts of buttermilk (or boil sour milk and take the same quantity of the whey), and pour into a crock in which a scant tea-cup of sifted flour has been placed. Let stand till sufficiently cool, then add half a cup of yeast, and flour to make a thick batter ; the better and longer the sponge is stirred the whiter will be the bread. In the morning siffc the flour into the bread-pan, pour the sponge in the center, stir in some of the flour, and let stand until after break- fast ; then mix, kneading for about half an hour, the longer the better ; when light, mold into loaves, this time kneading as little as possible. The secret of good bread is having good yeasl^ and not baking too hard. This makes four loaves and forty biscuit. Mn. M, G. MooTCy

Good Bread.

For four small loaves boil four large potatoes ; when done, pour off the water, and when it cools add to it a yeast cake ; mash the potato very fine, put through a sieve, pour boiling milk on as much flour as i& needed, let stand until cool, add the potato and yeast, a large tearspoon of salt and one table-spoon of sugar ; stir very stiff, adding flour as is needed. Let stand in a warm place until light,

BREAD-MAKING, 19

dissolve one tea-spoon of soda in' a little hot water, mix well through with the hands, mold into loaves, and let rise again. When suffi- ciently raised place in a moderately hot oven, keeping up a steady fire. Mrs. Ctcvemor Hardin, Missouri.

Hop- Yeast Bread.

One tea-cup yeast, three pints warm water; make a thin sponge at tea time, cover and let it remain two hours or until very light. By adding the water to the dour iirst and having the sponge quite warm, it is never necessary to put the sponge over hot water or in an oveu to make it rise. Knead into a loaf before going to bed ; in the morning mold into three loaves, spreading a little lard between as they are put in the pan. When light, bake one hour, having oven quite hot when the bread is put in, and very moderate when it is done. (Bread made in this way is never sour or heavy.) To have fine, light biscuit, add shortening at night, and in the morning make into biscuit and bake for breakfast. By this recipe bread is baked befoi'e the stove is cold from breakfast, and out of the way for other baking.

To cool bread there should be a board for the purpose. An oaken board, covered with heavy white flannel, is the best ; over this spread a fresh linen bread-cloth, and lay the bread on it right side up, with Bothing over it except a very thin cover to keep off the flies. It should be placed immediately in the firesh air or wind to cool ; when cool, place immediately in a tin box or stone jar, and cover closely. Br^d cooled in this way will have a soft crust, and be filled with pure air. Mrs J. T, Liggett, Detroit,

Bread with Potato Sponge.

Pare and boil four or five potatoes, mash fine, and add one pint of flour; pour on the mixture first boiling water enough to moisten well, then about one quart of cold water, after which add flour enough to make a stiff batter. When cooled to ** scarcely milk warm," put in one-half pint (or more will do no harm) of yeast, and let it stand in a warm place over night ; in the morning add to this sponge one cup of lard, stir in flour,